How do you classify a diabetic foot ulcer and infection?

How do you classify a diabetic foot ulcer and infection?

These include: grade 0 (intact skin), grade 1 (superficial ulcer), grade 2 (deep ulcer to tendon, bone, or joint), grade 3 (deep ulcer with abscess or osteomyelitis), grade 4 (forefoot gangrene), and grade 5 (whole foot gangrene).

What are the stages of a diabetic foot ulcer?

Abstract. When treating diabetic foot ulcers it is important to be aware of the natural history of the diabetic foot, which can be divided into five stages: stage 1, a normal foot; stage 2, a high risk foot; stage 3, an ulcerated foot; stage 4, an infected foot; and stage 5, a necrotic foot.

How are trophic ulcers treated?

  1. Off-loading measures. Offloading pressure off the ulcer is the KEY to successful management of a trophic ulcer.
  2. Reconstructive options.
  3. Nerve decompression.
  4. Foot/nail care.
  5. Avoid smoking and tobacco.
  6. Objective wound measurement/record keeping.
  7. Patient education and home care.

How do you classify diabetic feet?

The most widely accepted classification system for diabetic foot ulcers and lesions is the Wagner ulcer classification system, which is based on the depth of penetration, the presence of osteomyelitis or gangrene, and the extent of tissue necrosis (Table 2).

How is diabetic foot infection diagnosed?

The diagnosis of diabetic foot infection is based on the clinical signs and symptoms of local inflammation. Infected wounds should be cultured after debridement. Tissue specimens obtained by scraping the base of the ulcer with a scalpel or by wound or bone biopsy are strongly preferred to wound swabs.

How is a foot infection diagnosed?

Signs and symptoms of foot infections may include the following:

  1. Change in skin color.
  2. Rise in skin temperature.
  3. Swelling and pain.
  4. Open wounds that are slow to heal.
  5. Breaks or dryness in the skin.
  6. Drainage.
  7. Odor.
  8. Fever.

How does a foot ulcer start?

Ulcers form due to a combination of factors, such as lack of feeling in the foot, poor circulation, foot deformities, irritation (such as friction or pressure), and trauma, as well as duration of diabetes.

Are trophic ulcer painful?

Malum perforans is a long-lasting, usually painless ulcer that penetrates deep into or through the skin, usually on the sole of the foot (in which case it may be called malum perforans pedis)….

Malum perforans
Other names Neurotrophic ulcer and Trophic ulcer
Diabetic foot ulcer
Specialty Dermatology

What is Mal Mal perforans?

Mal perforans is a chronic foot ulcer commonly found in diabetics with neuropathy. Although it will often respond to conservative measures, recurrence is frequent and brings with it the risk of spreading infection and serious destruction of tissues. Surgical treatment of seven patients, based on exc …

What is malum perforans and how is it treated?

Malum perforans is a long-lasting, usually painless ulcer that penetrates deep into or through the skin, usually on the sole of the foot (in which case it may be called malum perforans pedis ). It is often a complication in diabetes mellitus and other conditions affecting the nerves.

What does Malum perforans plantar look like?

Malum perforans plantar appears as a rounded morphology dermic lesion and it is accompanied by hyperkeratosis or calluses. It is painless so some diabetic patients do not pay attention to it until it is in a more advanced stage. It is a very clean ulcer and appears in the areas of the foot submitted to greater pressure.

What causes Malum perforans plantar ulcers?

2) Sensory neuropathy is a key factor in the formation of malum perforans plantar. In a diabetic patient, the lack of sensitivity together with an anatomical deformity of the foot will turn into a neuropathic ulcer through hyper-pressure in the short term. 3) Autonomic neuropathy causes cutaneous dryness and cracking.