How does a proton magnetometer work?

How does a proton magnetometer work?

In a proton precession magnetometer, a container of fluid rich in hydrogen atoms, usually a hydrocarbon, is surrounded by a coil of wire which can be energized by a direct current to produce a strong magnetic field, forcing all protons to align in a certain direction.

How do you make a magnetometer?


  1. Prepare the magnetometer container.
  2. Prepare the index card.
  3. Glue the small craft mirror to the index card.
  4. Glue the bar magnet to the index card.
  5. Glue the straw to the index card and magnet.
  6. Hang the bar magnet/index card in the jar.
  7. Create a reference point.
  8. Use your magnetometer to collect data.

What is a magnetic gradiometer?

A gradiometer is a special measuring instrument that consists of more than one (usually two, rarely three or four) magnetometers. The differences between the readings of the sensors are seen as an approximation to the gradient of the magnetic field along their alignment.

What is the purpose of a fluxgate?

Technically a fluxgate compass is an electromagnetic compass which solves the purpose of a conventional compass. The fluxgate compass is used in ships mainly for the purpose of steering. Since the compass is an electronic one, the scope of errors is greatly reduced.

How does a gradiometer work?

The gradiometer is a magnetometer which measures the change in the magnetic field (the gradient of the field). Compared to a magnetometer this increases the measurement accuracy and the sensitivity to regional changes of the Earth’s magnetic field. Both measuring systems can also be used on the water.

What does a proton magnetometer measure?

Proton magnetometer. The proton magnetometer, also known as the proton precession magnetometer (PPM), uses the principle of Earth’s field nuclear magnetic resonance (EFNMR) to measure very small variations in the Earth’s magnetic field, allowing ferrous objects on land and at sea to be detected.

How does a proton-precession magnetometer (PPM) work?

2.1 The basic operation of a proton-precession magne- tometer A block diagram of a PPM is shown in Figure 2.1. Figure 2.1: Block dagram of a PPM A PPM runs in two basic modes; the rst of these is the polarization mode in which the working substance is subjected to a strong eld in or- der to magnetize (i.e., line up) the protons.

What are the disadvantages of proton magnetometer?

As a precision instrument to measure the earth magnetic field, proton magnetometer is widely used in different fields such as geological survey, buried objects detection and earth field variations. Due to poor signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the system, proton magnetometer suffers from low sensitivity which directly affects the performance.

What is the physical significance of a proton’s magnetic moment?

pis dimensionless and is one of the fundamental constants of physics. If a proton is placed in an external magnetic eld, B, because of its own magnetic moment, it will experience a magnetic torque.