What is the difference between organophosphorus and organophosphate?
Organophosphates (also known as phosphate esters, or OPEs) are a class of organophosphorus compounds with the general structure O=P(OR)3, a central phosphate molecule with alkyl or aromatic substituents. They can be considered as esters of phosphoric acid.
What is an organophosphate example?
Organophosphate (OP) compounds are a diverse group of chemicals used in both domestic and industrial settings. Examples of organophosphates include the following: Insecticides – Malathion, parathion, diazinon, fenthion, dichlorvos, chlorpyrifos, ethion. Nerve gases – Soman, sarin, tabun, VX.
What is the meaning of organophosphorus poisoning?
Organophosphate poisoning is poisoning due to organophosphates (OPs). Organophosphates are used as insecticides, medications, and nerve agents. Symptoms include increased saliva and tear production, diarrhea, vomiting, small pupils, sweating, muscle tremors, and confusion.
What is the cause of death in organophosphorus poisoning?
When death occurs, the most common reason is respiratory failure stemming from bronchoconstriction, bronchorrhea, central respiratory depression or weakness/paralysis of the respiratory muscles.
What are organophosphorus compounds pharmacology?
Organophosphorus compounds are derivatives of phosphoric, phosphonic or phosphinic acids whose oxygen atoms bound directly to the phosphorus atom can be substituted by sulphur or nitrogen atoms. These compounds represent a large group of organic compounds used primarily as pesticides.
What are the types of organophosphorus compounds?
Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) are a diverse group of chemicals, including insecticides (malathion, parathion, diazinon, fenthion, dichlorvos, chlorpyrifos, and others) and nerve gases (soman, sarin, tabun, and VX).
How does organophosphate cause paralysis?
Organophosphates bind irreversibly to acetylcholinesterase and plasma cholinesterase, rendering them unable to cleave acetylcholine at pre- and postsynaptic junctions and at skeletal muscle and central nervous system receptors. This results in a clinical syndrome of cholinergic overstimulation.
What are the signs of organophosphate toxicity?
The clinical signs of organophosphate poisoning occur as a result of excess acetylcholine at nerve endings, which mimics hyperactivity of the parasympathetic nervous system. Signs relative to the alimentary tract include excess salivation, lacrimation, abdominal pain, vomiting, intestinal hypermotility, and diarrhea.
What is organophosphate used for?
Organophosphates are the most widely used insecticides today. They are used in agriculture, the home, gardens, and veterinary practice. Organophosphate insecticides (such as diazinon) are one type of pesticide that works by damaging an enzyme in the body called acetylcholinesterase.
What are organophosphate drugs?
Organophosphates cause the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase which leads to the accumulation of acetylcholine in the body. Organophosphate compounds include : insecticides – malathion, parathion, diazinon, fenthion, dichlorvos, chlorpyrifos, ethion and nerve gases – soman, sarin, tabun, VX.
What is organophosphorus?
Definition of organophosphorus : of, relating to, or being a phosphorus-containing organic compound and especially a pesticide (such as malathion) that acts by inhibiting cholinesterase : of, relating to, or being a phosphorus-containing organic pesticide (as malathion) that acts by inhibiting cholinesterase
What are the symptoms of organophosphorus toxicity?
organophosphorus compound poisoning poisoning by excessive exposure to an organophosphorus compound; there are usually neurologic symptoms such as axonopathy and paralysis, and it often ends fatally. Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.
How do organophosphates affect the brain?
Pesticides. The brain sends out neurotransmitters to the nerve endings in the body; organophosphates disrupt this process from occurring.This chemical, organophosphate works by disrupting the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase. Acetylcholinesterase break down the acetylcholine neurotransmitter, which sends out signals to other nerve endings in the body.
Are organophosphates harmful to humans?
But large doses of organophosphates can also harm people and other animals. Organophosphate poisoning can occur when you’re exposed to them for too long or at high levels. Organophosphates are typically colorless-to-brown liquids at room temperature.