What is the YAP Taz pathway?

What is the YAP Taz pathway?

Mechanical cues control Hippo-YAP/TAZ tumor-suppressor pathway. The Hippo signaling pathway is a complex network of proteins that controls organ size via regulation of cellular proliferation, survival and differentiation.

What is YAP gene?

YAP1 (yes-associated protein 1), also known as YAP or YAP65, is a protein that acts as a transcription coregulator that promotes transcription of genes involved in cellular proliferation and suppressing apoptotic genes.

What does the Hippo pathway do?

Pathway Description: Hippo signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that controls organ size by regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, and stem cell self renewal. In addition, dysregulation of the Hippo pathway contributes to cancer development.

Is YAP a transcription factor?

Abstract. Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a potent transcription coactivator acting via binding to the TEAD transcription factor, and plays a critical role in organ size regulation. YAP is phosphorylated and inhibited by the Lats kinase, a key component of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway.

What is YAP marker?

The YAP marker originated when an Alu repetitive element retro transposed at the DYS 287 locus at location Yqll. The use of this polymorphic Alu insertion (PAI) in human. population studies has been bolstered by DNA sequenc.

Is YAP a protein?

Yes-associated protein (YAP or YAP1) is an oncoprotein encoded by the YAP gene in the human chromosome 11q22 (1). YAP is one of the downstream proteins in the Hippo signaling pathway (1).

What is the difference between proliferation and differentiation?

The main difference between cell proliferation and cell differentiation is that the cell proliferation is the process which increases the cell number whereas the cell differentiation is the process which alters the morphology and function of cells.

What chromosome is Alu on?

A member of the Alu family of repeated DNA elements has been identified on the long arm of the human Y chromosome, Yq11. This element, referred to as the Y Alu polymorphic (YAP) element, is present at a specific site on the Y chromosome in some humans and is absent in others.

What are YAP/TAZ and why are they important?

Nuclear YAP/TAZ promote cell proliferation, organ overgrowth, survival to stress and dedifferentiation of post-mitotic cells into their respective tissue progenitors. YAP/TAZ are required for growth of embryonic tissues, wound healing and organ regeneration, where they are activated by cell-intrinsic and extrinsic cues.

What are the mechanisms of YAP/TAZ inhibition by phosphorylation?

The mechanisms of YAP/TAZ inhibition by phosphorylation are nuclear exclusion, sequestration in the cytoplasm, and/or proteasomal degradation ( 114, 123, 264, 266 ). LATS1/2 phosphorylate YAP at five serine/threonine residues (defined by the consensus HxRxxS), and TAZ has four of these sites ( 262) ( Figure 1 ).

Do Yap and Taz require the COOH-terminal portion of the Yap for transcription?

Fusion of YAP/TAZ with the heterologous GAL4 DNA binding domain provided formal evidence of their transcriptional activation potential and indicated a requirement for the COOH-terminal portion of YAP and TAZ for transcription ( 99, 209 ).

Is patterned YAP/TAZ activation really associated with patterned Hippo signaling?

Then, as detailed in this review, YAP/TAZ are mainly understood as downstream effectors of the Hippo pathway, a kinase cascade that ends up phosphorylating and inhibiting YAP/TAZ. But it is still unclear whether, and to what extent, patterned YAP/TAZ activation in specific tissue niches is really associated with a patterned Hippo signaling.