Which is the most definitive test to confirm a diagnosis of multiple myeloma?
The complete blood count (CBC) is a test that measures the levels of red cells, white cells, and platelets in the blood. If there are too many myeloma cells in the bone marrow, some of these blood cell levels can be low. The most common finding is a low red blood cell count (anemia).
What is crab in multiple myeloma?
The acronym CRAB summarizes the most typical clinical manifestations of multiple myeloma, these being hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia, and bone disease.
Can multiple myeloma be mistaken for something else?
Since multiple myeloma symptoms can be mistaken for other ailments, and in some cases, symptoms may not be present at all, it’s important to know the warning signs and what can put you at risk of developing the disease.
What does high serum kappa mean?
A kappa free light chain test is a quick blood test that measures certain proteins in your blood. High levels of these proteins may mean you have a plasma cell disorder. A healthcare provider might order a kappa free light chain test if you have symptoms such as bone pain or fatigue.
What is the differential diagnosis for multiple myeloma?
Differential Diagnoses The main conditions to consider in the differential diagnosis of multiple myelomas are monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myelomas (SMM) primary amyloidosis (AL), and metastatic carcinoma.
What is the diagnostic workup for multiple myeloma (MM)?
The diagnostic workup for suspected multiple myeloma should include a complete blood count with differential; serum chemistries; measurement of creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, and beta 2 -microglobulin levels; immunoglobulin studies; a skeletal survey; and bone marrow evaluation.
What is the pathophysiology of multiple myeloma?
MULTIPLE MYELOMA: Pathophysiology The pathological and clinical features of myeloma are due to: • 1. Tissue infiltration • 2. Production of large amount of paraprotein • 3.
What are the signs and symptoms of multiple myeloma?
Clinical Presentation and Evaluation. In asymptomatic patients, multiple myeloma is most likely to be identified through laboratory abnormalities such as hypercalcemia, anemia, or proteinuria.8 Patients may present with nonspecific symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, malaise, weakness, recurrent infections, or weight loss.