What is bacterial and viral genetics?
Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages or phages) have DNA or RNA as genetic material. The two essential functions of genetic material are replication and expression. Genetic material must replicate accurately so that progeny inherit all of the specific genetic determinants (the genotype) of the parental organism.
Does location affect genetics?
Overall the study found “gene expression differed between the two locations in up to a third of all transcripts”. “The main conclusions showed that, which genes are expressed and how much of each gene is expressed depends primarily on where you live and what lifestyle you live,” says Visscher.
Where is viral genome located?
Viral genomes comprising DNA are most often replicated in the nucleus of the host cell, whereas replication of those comprising RNA typically occurs in the cytoplasm (Fig. 2).
What is viral genetics?
Viral genetics is the study of the mechanisms of heritable information in viruses, including genome structure, replication and genetic change. Disease causing viruses are of particular interest, however geneticists also use viruses to help understand fundamental mechanisms of molecular genetics.
What is meant by bacterial genetics?
Bacterial genetics is the study of the mechanisms of heritable information in bacteria, their chromosomes, plasmids, transposons and phages. Techniques that have enabled this discipline are culture in defined media, replica plating, mutagenesis, transformation, conjugation and transduction.
Does geography affect DNA?
Using Mantel tests, we revealed a significantly positive correlation between geographic and genetic distances (r = 0.578, p = 0.001, Fig. 3a) at the overall scale. Similarly, a significantly positive correlation was revealed in the QTP cluster (QTP: r = 0.559, p = 0.001, Fig.
Can geography affect genetic composition?
These results show that geographical and environmental factors together created stronger and more discrete genetic differentiation than isolation by distance alone, and illustrate the importance of ecological factors in forming or maintaining genetic divergence across a complex landscape.
What is bacterial gene transfer?
Bacterial gene transfer agents (GTAs) are small virus-like particles that package DNA fragments and inject them into cells. They are encoded by gene clusters resembling defective prophages, with genes for capsid head and tail components.
What are the 3 methods of genetic transfer in bacteria?
There are three “classical” methods of DNA transfer in nature: bacterial conjugation, natural transformation, and transduction (von Wintersdorff et al., 2016). Via HGT, exogenous DNA can be transferred from one bacterium to another even if they are only distantly related (Chen et al., 2005; Burton and Dubnau, 2010).
What are the 4 types of viral genomes?
- Double stranded DNA viruses.
- Single stranded DNA viruses.
- Double stranded RNA viruses.
- Single stranded RNA viruses ( positive sense ).
- Single stranded RNA viruses ( negative sense ).
- Positive sense single stranded RNA viruses that replicate through a DNA intermediate.
What are the 7 viral genomes?
The ICTV classifies viruses into seven orders: Herpesvirales, large eukaryotic double-stranded DNA viruses; Caudovirales, tailed double-stranded DNA viruses typically infecting bacteria; Ligamenvirales, linear double-stranded viruses infecting archaea; Mononegavirales, nonsegmented negative (or antisense) strand single …