What is scattering of light explain with example?

What is scattering of light explain with example?

When light passes through atmosphere, it is first adsorbed by air molecules, dust particles, smoke and water droplets and then re-radiated in various directions. This phenomenon is called scattering of light. Examples of scattering of light. Sun looks red at sunset and sunrise. Sky looks dark to astronomers.

What is the difference between phase shift and horizontal shift?

When the value B = 1, the horizontal shift, C, can also be called a phase shift, as seen in the diagram at the right. The easiest way to determine horizontal shift is to determine by how many units the “starting point” (0,0) of a standard sine curve, y = sin(x), has moved to the right or left.

How does phase shift keying work?

In phase shift keying the digital bit sequence is first converted to NRZ bipolar signal which directly modulates the carrier wave. The peak of the carrier wave is represented as A when the load resistance is assumed to be 1 ohm as standard, the power dissipated is given as,

What are the different types of phase-shift keying?

Two common examples are “binary phase-shift keying” (BPSK) which uses two phases, and “quadrature phase-shift keying” (QPSK) which uses four phases, although any number of phases may be used. Since the data to be conveyed are usually binary, the PSK scheme is usually designed with the number of constellation points being a power of two.

What is binary phase shift keying (BPSK)?

Binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) BPSK (also sometimes called PRK, phase reversal keying, or 2PSK) is the simplest form of phase shift keying (PSK). It uses two phases which are separated by 180° and so can also be termed 2-PSK.

What is Symmetric differential quadrature phase shift keying?

Symmetric differential quadrature phase shift keying (SDQPSK) is like DQPSK, but encoding is symmetric, using phase shift values of −135°, −45°, +45° and +135°. The modulated signal is shown below for both DBPSK and DQPSK as described above.