What is the pathophysiology of testicular cancer?
The pathophysiology of testicular cancer depends on the histological cell subtypes and findings. Most testicular cancers derived from the lack of differentiation of primordial germ cell into spermatogonia.
What is testicular pathology?
The two main categories of testicular tumors are germ cell tumors (GCTs), which account for 95 percent of cases, and sex cord-stromal tumors. Testicular pathology is a nosologically complex subject because of the spectrum of histologic subtypes and variable clinical behavior, particularly among GCTs.
What is the most common testicular tumor?
The most common type of testis cancer is a germ cell tumor. There are two main types of GCT: seminoma and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT). Both seminoma and NSGCT occur at about the same rate, and men can have seminoma, NSGCT or a combination of both.
What are the tumor markers for testicular cancer?
There are three important tumor markers for testicular cancer: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
Whats the difference between seminoma and non seminoma?
Seminomas are very sensitive to radiation therapy. Nonseminoma: This more common type of testicular cancer tends to grow more quickly than seminomas. Nonseminoma tumors are often made up of more than one type of cell, and are identified according to these different cell types: Choriocarcinoma (rare)
Where are testicular tumors located?
Testicular cancer occurs in the testicles (testes), which are located inside the scrotum, a loose bag of skin underneath the penis. The testicles produce male sex hormones and sperm for reproduction. Compared with other types of cancer, testicular cancer is rare.
Why is LDH elevated in testicular cancer?
Testicular Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) LDH is less specific for testis cancer than HCG or AFP. However, elevated LDH levels are correlated to high tumor burden in seminoma and recurrence in NSGCT.