How do you calculate maturation index?
It is based on weighted proportions of cell types from the Maturation Index (MI) and calculated using Meisels’ formula: the percentage of superficial cells (S) plus 0.5 times the percentage of intermediate cells (I) coded from the cytology sample [MV= %S + (0.5 × % I)].
What are parabasal cells?
Parabasal cells are the smallest epithelial cells seen on a typical vaginal smear. They are round or nearly round and have a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio. Parabasal cells are prevalent on smears taken during diestrus and anestrus, and not uncommon during early proestrus.
What does estrogenic effect present mean?
In menopausal women not taking estrogen replacement therapy, the presence of detectable “estrogen effect” would suggest some non-ovarian source of estrogen and the long-term effects of unopposed estrogen should be considered.
What are the effects of estrogen?
In addition to regulating the menstrual cycle, estrogen affects the reproductive tract, the urinary tract, the heart and blood vessels, bones, breasts, skin, hair, mucous membranes, pelvic muscles, and the brain.
Is mature squamous epithelium normal?
Normal mature squamous epithelium is usually thick and hides the blood vessels. Blood vessels are visible if they are prominent or if the epithelium is thin.
What does mature squamous cells mean?
Mature squamous cells are defined by their flat, scalelike shape, and abundant cytoplasm rich in complex cytokeratins. This morphology reflects their function as a barrier against irritation and injury.
What happens when your estrogen is high?
Summary. High estrogen levels can cause symptoms such as irregular or heavy periods, weight gain, fatigue, and fibroids in females. In males, they can cause breast tissue growth, difficulty getting or maintaining an erection, and infertility.